Pier Element Internal Forces

The wall pier element internal forces are similar to the frame element internal forces. They are:

The positive directions of these forces are exactly the same as those described for the frame element.

These internal forces and moments are present at every cross section along the height of the wall pier element. They are reported only at the ends (top and bottom) of the pier element. The pier internal forces and moments are reported in the pier element local coordinate system.

Wall Pier Local Axes for a Two-Dimensional Pier

Typically a wall pier is made up of one or more wall-type area objects or a combination of one or more wall-type area objects and one or more column-type line objects. The local axes of these two-dimensional wall piers are defined as follows:

In the special case where a wall pier is made up of a single column-type frame element, the local axes of the pier are the same as those of the frame element.

If a wall pier is made up of two or more column-type frame elements, but no area objects, the local axes of the pier are the same as those of the first defined frame element. To confirm the local axes orientation in this unusual case, view them graphically using the View menu > Set Display Options command.

Wall Pier Local Axes for a Three-Dimensional Pier

In a three-dimensional wall pier, the local axes are defined as follows:

 

See also:

Spandrel Element Internal Forces

Output Convention - Frame Element Internal Forces