Spandrel Element Internal Forces

The wall spandrel element internal forces are similar to the frame element internal forces. They are:

The positive directions of these forces are exactly the same as those described for the frame element.

Wall Spandrel Local Axes

The local 1-2 plane is in the plane of the wall spandrel. The positive local axis 1 is horizontal and has a positive projection on the global X-axis, or if the plane of the spandrel is oriented parallel to the global Y-Z plane, axis 1 is in the same direction as the positive global Y-axis. The positive local 1-axis points from the i-end of the spandrel to the j-end of the spandrel.

In the case where a wall spandrel is made up of a one or more beam-type frame element, the local axes of the spandrel are still the same as those described above. The local axes orientation of a spandrel are independent of the local axes orientation of its component area and line objects.

 

See also:

Pier Element Internal Forces

Output Convention - Frame Element Internal Forces